A River Of Waste

MEET THE EXPERTS

DR. JOANNE BURKHOLDER
DIRECTOR FOR CENTER FOR APPLIED ACQUATIC ECOLOGY AT NC STATE

Over the past ten years, Dr. Joanne Burkholder’s research has been focused primarily in three areas in aquatic ecosystems:

Chronic effects of nutrient over-enrichment (eutrophication) and other chemical environmental contaminants (CECs) on aquatic plants (algae, angiosperms);

The ecology and impacts of harmful algae (cyanobacteria, dinoflagellates, haptophytes, raphidophytes; and

Influences of long-term (decadal+) changes in watershed land use and pollution sources on surface water quality.

She is the Director of the Center for Applied Aquatic Ecology located in the Department of Plant Biology at North Carolina State Univ. Her research team has designed and maintained a 14-year ongoing research and monitoring program on the Neuse Estuary. They've developed and patented an instrument that allows automated depth profiles of water quality on an hourly basis, 24/7, to track environmental changes,examine the ecology of harmful algae, and improve assessment of fish kill causality. They also designed and maintained a 6-year ongoing research and monitoring program in three major potable water supply reservoirs in North Carolina and are working to combine their real-time, automated sampling capability with microarrays to detect toxic cyanobacteria (blue-green algae), pesticides and other CECs, and microbial pathogens to improve early warning systems to safeguard public water supplies. 
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DR. LAWRENCE CAHOON
PROFESSOR OF MARINE BIOLOGY, UNIVERSITY OF NORTH CAROLINA, WILMINGTON

Dr. Lawrence Cahoon is a biological oceanographer and limnologist. His basic research interests include: primary production, grazing, and nutrient dynamics, and his applied research interests include various aspects of water quality analysis and remediation. One focus of his research has been the role of benthic microalgae in oceanic, estuarine, and freshwater ecosystems and has been interested in studying the basic processes regulating benthic microalgae with nutrient cycles and grazers, benthic microalgae as sources of useful natural products, and human impacts on sediment-water interface processes. Dr. Cahoon is also interested in evaluating water quality management practices in coastal areas and in the interactions of water quality with community function in estuarine habitats.
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W.A. DREW EDMONSON
ATTORNEY GENERAL - State of Oklahoma

Drew Edmondson was elected Attorney General in 1994, and was re-elected in 1998, 2002 and 2006, winning more than 60 percent of the vote in his last two elections.

Edmondson served as the 2002 - 2003 President of the National Association of Attorneys General. In 1996, Edmondson filed suit against the tobacco industry resulting in a $2 billion settlement between the industry and Oklahoma, part of the largest settlement in the history of the world. Edmondson was one of eight attorneys general asked to serve on the negotiating team for the states.

In 2005, Edmondson, on behalf of the State of Oklahoma, filed suit against more than a dozen poultry companies. The lawsuit, which was filed after years of negotiations, accuses the companies of creating runoff into the Illinois River Watershed as a result of their waste dumping practices.

Before his election as Attorney General, Edmondson was elected, unopposed, to three consecutive terms as Muskogee County District Attorney in 1982, 1986 and 1990. He served as president of the Oklahoma District Attorneys Association and was selected as Outstanding District Attorney for the State of Oklahoma in 1985 and the Outstanding Death Penalty Prosecutor in the 9th and 10th Circuits.

Edmondson served one term in the Oklahoma Legislature before entering the University of Tulsa School of Law in 1976. His undergraduate teaching degree is from Northeastern State University, Tahlequah, which he attended after graduating from Muskogee Central High School.

Edmondson is a Navy veteran with a tour of duty in Vietnam. He is a member of the Oklahoma Bar Association, the Presbyterian Church and the Democratic Party.
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J. BERTON FISHER, PHD
PROFESSOR OF GEOSCIENCE, University of Tulsa

Dr. Fisher is a founding member and principal of Lithochimeia, Inc. He has worked in the area of environmental litigation for more than 15 years, has written numerous expert reports, and has been qualified as an expert and given testimony in federal and state courts and in administrative hearings. He has worked professionally as a research scientist on matters related to the inorganic and organic geochemistry of the Earth for over thirty years. He has worked on environmental issues arising from the land disposal of wastes from confined animal feeding operations for more than ten years, has had a

special focus on problems related to petroleum exploration and production and other aspects of the petroleum industry for more than twenty-seven years, and has worked on technical environmental matters related to wastes generated by the petroleum and other industries, including the petroleum exploration and production industry for nearly thirty years.
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PARRIS GLENDENING, FORMER GOVERNOR (MARYLAND)

Parris Nelson Glendening is a member of the United States Democratic Party, was the 59th Governor of Maryland in the United States from 1995 to 2003. He had also been the County Executive of Prince George's County, Maryland

from 1982 to 1994.

During Glendening's second term as governor, serious environmental issues concerning the Chesapeake Bay and the overdevelopment of rural areas prompted him to focus on issues of growth and environmental stewardship. Glendening is widely recognized as a pioneer in land development issues and is credited for coining the phrase "Smart Growth", which became one of his primary agenda items during his term.

Glendening is President of the Smart Growth Leadership Institute, which is dedicated to helping state and local elected, civic and business leaders design and implement effective smart growth strategies. They believe that plans, policies, codes and regulations should encourage healthier neighborhoods; promote quality investments; eliminate red-tape; provide incentives to level the playing field for developers; foster active citizenship; and, safeguard the future for our children.
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MICHAEL GREGER, MD
DIRECTOR, PUBLIC HEALTH & ANIMAL AGRICULTURE, Humane Society of the United States

Dr. Michael Greger is Director of Public Health and Animal Agriculture in the Farm Animal Welfare Division. A physician specializing in clinical nutrition, Greger focuses his work on the human health implications of intensive animal Agriculture, including the routine use of non-therapeutic antibiotics and growth hormones in animals raised for food, and the public health threats of industrial factory farms. He also works on food safety issues, such as bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease), and plays a role in The HSUS's efforts to analyze and shape public policy concerning agriculture and nutrition.

Greger has been an invited lecturer at universities, medical schools and conferences worldwide. He is the author of "Heart Failure: Diary of a Third-Year Medical Student"; (2000), "Carbophobia: The Scary Truth About America's Low-Carb Craze" (2005), and "Bird Flu: A Virus of Our Own Hatching"; (2006).

Greger is a graduate of the Cornell University School of Agriculture and the Tufts University School of Medicine.
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JOHN KLEIN
PRESIDENT, Environmental Concerned Citizens Of Central Michigan

John Klein is the President of the Hudson area organization whose philosophy is to observe, record, and inform, while the continued goal is to help stop this ongoing environmental disaster we are experiencing from the CAFO discharges. The ECCCM is one of Michigan's most effective volunteer water monitoring programs, documenting persistent pollution from animal factories. In the last four years, their monitoring programs have helped state, local, and federal officials identify the serious issue of liquid manure discharges through field drainage tiles. Discharges of manure and other agricultural wastes into Bean Creek Watershed and the River Raisin Watershed led to more than 60 citations from the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality against eleven CAFOs for violations of the Clean Water Act and Michigan's water protection laws.

ECCSCM has recently begun a project of air monitoring for hydrogen sulfide, a major air emission of animal factories.
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ROBERT LAWRENCE, MD
DIRECTOR, JOHNS HOPKINS CENTER FOR A LIVABLE FUTURE

Dr. Lawrence is Professor of Health Policy and Management, and Professor of Environmental Health Sciences at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health. In 1996 he became the founding director of Johns Hopkins Center for a Livable Future (CLF) whose mission is to promote research and to develop and communicate information about the complex interrelationships among diet, food production, environment and human health; to advance an ecological perspective in reducing threats to the health of the public; and to promote policies that protect health, the global environment and the ability to sustain life for future generations.

Dr. Lawrence is a graduate of Harvard College and Harvard Medical School, and trained in internal medicine at the Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts. He served for three years as an epidemic intelligence service officer at the Centers for Disease Control, U.S. Public Health Service.

He is a Master of the American College of Physicians and a Fellow of the American College of Preventive Medicine, a member of the Institute of Medicine of the National Academy of Sciences, the Association of Teachers of Preventive Medicine, the American Public Health Association, and Physicians for Human Rights.

From 1970 to 1974, he was a member of the faculty of medicine at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill where he helped develop a primary health care system funded by the Office of Economic Opportunity. In 1974, he was appointed as the first director of the Division of Primary Care at Harvard Medical School where he subsequently served as the Charles S. Davidson Associate Professor of Medicine and Chief of Medicine at the Cambridge Hospital until 1991. From 1991 to 1995, he was the director of health sciences at the Rockefeller Foundation.
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MICHELE MERKEL
ENVIRONMENTAL INTEGRITY PROJECT, WASHINGTON DC

Michele Merkel is the senior counsel of the Environmental Integrity Project (EIP), a nonpartisan, nonprofit organization that advocates for effective enforcement of environmental laws. It was established in March of 2002 by former EPA enforcement attorneys to advocate for more effective enforcement of environmental laws. 

The Environmental Integrity Project has three objectives:

* To provide objective analysis of how the failure to enforce or implement environmental laws increases pollution and affects the public's health;


* To hold federal and state agencies, as well as individual corporations, accountable for failing to enforce or comply with environmental laws;


* To help local communities in key states obtain the protection of environmental laws.

Merkel has been a strong advocate and activist for many years and has appeared before Congress on numerous occasions representing environmental organizations providing expert testimony on the horrendous violations caused by animal feeding operations (AFOs).
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PAUL SHAPIRO
Senior Director, Factory Farming Campaign, Humane Society of the United States

Paul Shapiro has played an integral role in numerous successful campaigns to improve the plight of farm animals, including ballot measures inCalifornia and Arizona, and several corporate campaigns aimed at reducing the number of hens confined in battery cages. 

Shapiro is also the founder and former campaigns director for
Compassion Over Killing, where he helped lead campaigns such as the successful effort to end the use of the misleading "Animal Care Certified" logo on battery-cage egg cartons nationwide. He also worked at Compassion Over Killing as a farm animal cruelty investigator—primarily documenting conditions on egg and broiler factory farms, livestock auctions and slaughter plants. 

He has published dozens of articles about animal welfare in publications ranging from daily newspapers to academic journals.